Text om CBID baserad på en c-uppsats i utvecklingsstudier 2010.
Text om CBID baserad på en c-uppsats i utvecklingsstudier (2010):
Community-Based Inclusive Development as a strategy for MDGs
How can marginalized groups achieve a substantial influence on the public policy in a sustainable way and not just in a limited number of communities? How can the governments and politicians join with the people to fulfill their obligations to the citizens concerning human rights? May the work for community-based inclusive development (CBID) be a possible way for a public policy which allocate resources according to the priorities of persons experiencing marginalization? The capabilities of the citizens crucially depend on, among other things, economic, social, and political arrangements (Sen, 1999).
The community-based inclusive approach has attracted attention as a strategy to make inclusive the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Poverty Reduction Strategies, that is to include people irrespectively geographical location, disability, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation along with the poverty (Khasnabis, 2010). New guidelines on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) has recently been developed. The guidelines promote CBR as a strategy which can contribute to implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , and of disability inclusive national legislation, and which can support community-based inclusive development (WHO, UNESCO, ILO and IDDC, 2010). Practical suggestions are provided how to develop or strengthen community-based rehabilitation programs to ensure that people with disabilities and their family members are able to access the benefits of the health, education, livelihood and social sectors (WHO et al, 2010). The guidelines support an empowering participating process to address the exclusion. To achieve CBID discriminated groups need to work together and be included in the decision making and development. This comprise a community centered approach where the community members are the change agents cooperating and enhancing the social capital to overcome poverty or/and other problems affecting their lives. The development initiatives are owned and controlled by the community. CBID is a rather new term, reflecting the development in the society putting attention to the importance of inclusion of persons with disabilities as well as other discriminated groups in a broad perspective. CBID was preceded by Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) and both terms are in use. WHO recommend the terminology CBR for a community-based inclusive development (CBID) (Khasnabis, 2010). This approach is followed in the thesis. The rehabilitation center Piña Palmera, which I use as an example of the work for CBID, has in practice by making mistakes, corrections, evaluations, new mistakes etc, developed an inclusive way of working. CBR is an integrated and important part of their work for CBID.
The study supports that the work for a community-based inclusive development to more or less degree promotes processes that contribute to increased substantial and instrumental freedoms. Using the terminology of Aaron Antonovsky, persons with disabilities are empowered with an increased sense of coherence, built up by increased understanding, sense of meaningfulness and ability to handle the situation. Stigmatization and discrimination can be replaced with empowerment and inclusion. The instrumental freedoms (described by Amartya Sen, 1999) with political freedoms, economical facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees and protective security are interlinked, converging to enhanced general capabilities and freedom for individuals. The deprivation trap (Robert Chambers, 1983) with powerlessness, isolation, poverty, physical weakness and vulnerability may thereby be countered. This may contribute to sustainable processes where the elements of increased sense of coherence, substantive and instrumental freedoms reinforces each other in positive circles having an impact that may go even beyond the MDGs, while dealing not only with the substantive freedoms in the MDGs, but also with some of the structures and conditions that contribute to poverty, as expressed in the instrumental freedoms and the deprivation trap. The work for a community-based inclusive development (CBID) includes in the study the flexible application of CBR making use of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as well as constructive networks in the communities and between different organizations to promote substantial democracy and a public policy for human rights. The government and the politicians have an important supportive role to fulfill their obligations according to the priorities of the citizens in the communities.
Författare: Joakim Davidsson, firstname.lastname@example.org